References – S

References – S

These tribes grew corn and other crops and made pottery cooking vessels. Village tribes along the Missouri River used a bowl-shaped bullboat. They made it by stretching a buffalo hide over a wooden frame. It was too clumsy for water travel, but it could be used to ferry people and gear across a river. Each tribe knew where the buffalo should be from month to month and moved as necessary for convenience in hunting. To get horses, the Indians were willing to trade their most valuable goods. They also raided the camps of other tribes and white traders and roped any wild ponies they found. On a big hunt, the many bands in a tribe gathered in a huge camp.

The Native Americans

Liang Native American tribes lived in harmony with the land for ages before Europeans settled on this continent. Entire nations were established without the modern creature-comforts of home that we are familiar with today. Their skills and traditions have almost been completely forgotten, but we can still learn much from how they lived.

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Paleo-Indians and Settlement of the Americas This map shows the approximate location of the ice-free corridor and specific Paleoindian sites Clovis theory. It is not definitively known how or when the Native Americans first settled the Americas and the present-day United States. The prevailing theory proposes that people migrated from Eurasia across Beringia , a land bridge that connected Siberia to present-day Alaska during the Ice Age , and then spread southward throughout the Americas over the subsequent generations.

Genetic evidence suggests at least three waves of migrants arrived from Asia, with the first occurring at least 15 thousand years ago. Pre-Columbian era The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.

While technically referring to the era before Christopher Columbus ‘ voyages of to , in practice the term usually includes the history of American indigenous cultures until they were conquered or significantly influenced by Europeans, even if this happened decades or even centuries after Columbus’ initial landing. Native American cultures are not normally included in characterizations of advanced stone age cultures as ” Neolithic ,” which is a category that more often includes only the cultures in Eurasia, Africa, and other regions.

They divided the archaeological record in the Americas into five phases; [23] see Archaeology of the Americas.

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Ancient Indian Ruins in Arizona The purpose of this website is to document some of the lesser-known prehistoric archaeological sites throughout Arizona. Many of the most spectacular Native American ruins in the state are operated as tourist attractions, with parking lots, sidewalks, guardrails, descriptive signs, and tour guides or Park Rangers keeping an eye on things.

Although some of these are included here, the primary emphasis is on unknown or unpublicized sites located in National Forests, State Trust land, and other remote places. Generally these are not as large or impressive as the public sites, and many have been severely damaged by looters and careless hikers. But as a general rule, the harder a site is to get to the better its condition will be, and there exist some pretty spectacular ruins in the dark recessed of Arizona’s wilderness areas The map below shows the general location of the ruins covered in this website.

Mouse over a marker for a brief description. Click on a marker to follow the link. Map of Arizona Archaeological Sites Links to sites and site groups Click on a thumbnail to go to the page. Sites with a red title require hiking. Sites with a green title are accessible by passenger car and generally require a fee. Sycamore Canyon Wilderness A multi-room Sinagua cliff dwelling, and a nearby panel of pictographs.

Montezuma’s Castle The best-preserved cliff dwelling in Arizona.

Almost Forgotten Native American Survival Skills

Spanish Exploration and Conquest of Native America: Documents the discovery and exploration of the Americas with both manuscripts and published maps. Many of these maps reflect the European Age of Discoveries, dating from the late 15th century to the 17th century when Europeans were concerned primarily with determining the outline of the continents as they explored and mapped the coastal areas and the major waterways.

Also included are 18th and 19th century maps documenting the exploration and mapping of the interior parts of the continents, reflecting the work of Lewis and Clark and subsequent government explorers and surveyors. Some of the reasons were:

St. Kateri Tekakwitha is the first Native American to be recognized as a saint by the Catholic Church. She was born in , in the Mohawk village of Ossernenon. Her mother was an Algonquin, who was captured by the Mohawks and who took a Mohawk chief for her husband. She contracted smallpox as a.

Alaska Native art , Coast Salish art , Kwakwaka’wakw art , and Haida argillite carvings The art of the Haida , Tlingit , Heiltsuk , Tsimshian and other smaller tribes living in the coastal areas of Washington State , Oregon , and British Columbia , is characterized by an extremely complex stylistic vocabulary expressed mainly in the medium of woodcarving. Famous examples include totem poles , transformation masks , and canoes. In addition to woodwork, two dimensional painting and silver, gold and copper engraved jewelry became important after contact with Europeans.

A totem pole in Ketchikan , Alaska, in the Tlingit style. Haida argillite carving, Haida Gwaii, c. While there were many regionally distinct cultures, trade between them was common and they shared the practice of burying their dead in earthen mounds, which has preserved a large amount of their art. Because of this trait the cultures are collectively known as the Mound builders. The Woodland period BCE— CE is divided into early, middle, and late periods, and consisted of cultures that relied mostly on hunting and gathering for their subsistence.

Ceramics made by the Deptford culture BCE— CE are the earliest evidence of an artistic tradition in this region. The Adena culture are another well-known example of an early Woodland culture. They carved stone tablets with zoomorphic designs, created pottery , and fashioned costumes from animal hides and antlers for ceremonial rituals. Shellfish was a mainstay of their diet, and engraved shells have been found in their burial mounds.

The Native Americans

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Lowe Ho-Chunk Native Modernism: The Art of George Morrison and Allan Houser showcases magnificent paintings, drawings, and sculptures by two highly acclaimed artists. George Morrison Grand Portage Band of Chippewa, — and Allan Houser Warm Springs Chiricahua Apache, — shattered expectations for Native art and paved the way for successive generations to experiment with a wide array of styles and techniques.

In this ground-breaking, beautifully illustrated book, distinguished Native American writers and scholars Truman T. Trafzer Wyandot descent Native Universe complements the themes of the museum’s inaugural exhibitions and offers readers a new, deeper understanding of Native philosophies, histories, and identities. Specifications , copublished by NMAI and National Geographic Society pages; black and white and color illustrations 9 x 12 inches Members save:

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Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas and Columbian Exchange Cultural areas of North America at time of European contact The European colonization of the Americas fundamentally changed the lives and cultures of the native peoples of the continents. The majority of these losses are attributed to the introduction of Afro-Eurasian diseases into the Americas.

Epidemics ravaged the Americas with diseases such as smallpox , measles , and cholera , which the early colonists and African slaves brought from Europe. The disease spread was slow initially, as Europeans were poor vectors for transferring the disease due to their natural exposure.

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Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Among the more popular misconceptions were those holding that the first residents of the continent had been members of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel or refugees from the lost island of Atlantis , that their descendents had developed the so-called Mound Builder culture , and that Native Americans had later overrun and destroyed the Mound Builder civilization. These erroneous and overtly racist beliefs were often used to rationalize the destruction or displacement of indigenous Americans.

Such beliefs were not dispelled until the s, when Cyrus Thomas, a pioneering archaeologist employed by the Smithsonian Institution , demonstrated conclusively that the great effigy mounds , burial mounds , and temple mounds of the Northeast and Southeast culture areas had been built by Native Americans. Monks Mound covers some 15 acres 6 hectares and is approximately feet 30 metres high; it dwarfs the automobile visible on the road in this photograph.

Courtesy of Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site Until the late s, it was generally believed—on the basis of evidence of the Clovis projectile points that had been found in New Mexico—that humans arrived in the Americas approximately 13, years ago. The land route is known as Beringia because it formed along the present-day Bering Strait. Paleo-Indian archaeological sites suggesting coastal and inland migration routes. Beringia began to emerge some 36, , years ago, as the ice age began.

At that time glaciers began to absorb increasing amounts of water, causing global sea levels to fall by as much as feet metres. A complete connection between Asia and North America existed from about 28, to 10, bce, and, at its greatest extent, Beringia may have spanned some 1, miles 1, km from north to south.

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Using methods of inference and analogy, selected objects in grave association of the prehistoric Hopewell culture-complex in southern Ohio appear to define a cult of the dead, and further suggest the presence of ritual specialists shamans and a highly structured social system. The mortuary cult may have been based upon cosmological elements similar to those present in aboriginal eastern North America, and with the data at least three hypothetical funeral variants can be reconstructed.

This qualitative study seeks to present the discursive effects of SADUPA, a new poetry-based technique centered on haiku, in the context of psycho-oncological treatment. The technique is used with a terminal cancer patient, Mr A. The psychological processes involved with and the poetic writings arising from the technique are discussed. The authors suggest that writing workshops based on the brief poetic structures of the haiku can enable patients to produce a larger and more singular narrative about their end-of-life experiences.

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